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Yoga is a scientific system that combines yoga postures relaxation breathing and meditation techniques with psychological moral and ethical principles. Through various combinations of practices determined by temperament and culture (personal preference) the yogi undergoes a complete and harmonious development physically, emotionally, mentally, and spiritually. Yoga is not a religion. Yoga is complete in every aspect because it touches every sphere of  human life.

The word yoga has been used in Vedas, Upanishads, Gita a mythological scriptures etc.Yog gives insight to know more about the self. The dormant inner powers blossom to give complete bliss and an introduction to the true self. It enables one to meet the supreme soul and attain complete bliss. Indian sagas have prescribed many methods to achieve this goal. We will mainly follow the Asana’s and Pranayama’s given in Ashtang yog (Yam, Niyam, Asan, Pranayam, Pratyahar, Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi) or the eight main aspect of Yog. We will also cover the six supporting actions or shatkarma’s or Hath Yog.

Practicing Yog revives our dormant energy. These exercises rejuvenate tissues and help new cell formation. Light yogic exercises reactivate the nervous system, and regulate the blood circulation. They reinstate fresh energy, energy is development and diseases get cured. This can be achieved with the help of different Yogic asanas. With the practice of pranayamas and asanas, the glands and muscles of the body contract and expand, and diseases get cured naturally.

Yog also keeps the veins healthy. The pancreas becomes active and produces insulin in the right quantity, which helps in curing diabetes and related diseases. Health is directly linked with the digestive system. The improper functioning of the digestive system in the prime cause for most of the diseases. Even some serious problems like heart disease occur due to a faulty digestive system. Yog strengthens the entire digestion process, making every part of the body healthy, and active. Fresh air enters the lungs making them healthier which keep diseases like asthma, respiratory problems, allergy etc away. Fresh air also stretches the heart. Yogic exercises dissolve the fat deposits which make the body light, healthy and attractive. Yog is beneficial for thin and lean physique as well. Along with physical fitness, Yog also egests the subtle senses, the intellect and the mind. Yog controls the working of organs and helps the mind to detach itself. The follower of Ashtang Yog passes with great ease from the darkness of ignorance toward a joyous, peaceful and ever illuminated existence by connecting with the Supreme Being and attain physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual progress.

Good health is the key to happiness. Health is wealth. But who is healthy? Sage Sushruta writes in the Ayurveda text ‘Sushrut Samhita’.This means, for a person who has all the three doshas-Vat, Pitta and Kapha in equilibrium, the agni (power of digestion) of the stomach is normal. These are the three pillars on which the whole body rests.

One whose diet, thoughts and behavior are balanced and controlled and whose deeds have divinity, which has a pious mind and desires auspicious things, whose sleep and awakening in regular, he is the true Yogi. We will briefly discuss these three pillars of good health and how to acquire good health:

  • Ahara(Diet)
  • A person’s body develops with diet. Diet has its effect not only on the body but also on the mind.

    Sage Charaka has given in interesting anecdote with reference to diet. Once, Charaka asked his disciples, ‘Who is not a patient? (on other words, Who is healthy?) His best disciple Vagbhatt replied, ‘ A person who does good deals, eats as much as required and in accordance with the season, is healthy’. One should eat according to one’s constitution i.e. vata, pitta and Kapha. If the constitution is Vata then vata problems arise in the body. In this condition, starchy food like rice and sour food which aggravate vata should be avoided. Pepper, dry ginger powder and ginger should be consumed. If the constitution is Pitta then hot, spicy and fried food items should not be consumed. Row foods like gourd, cucumber etc is beneficial. People with Kapha constitution should not eat cold things like rice, curd, buttermilk etc in excess. Pepper and turmeric should be added to milk and then consumed. Food should be taken in the right quantity.

    ‘Om’ or the ‘Gayatri Mantra’ and then sipping water at least three times. One should not drink water while eating food. If the food is dry then water can be taken in little quantity. One must not drink more than two to three sips of water after eating food. One could drink buttermilk if it is available. There is a shlok in Sanskrit which states that, “A person drinks water early in the morning, at night drinks milk after dinner and drinks buttermilk after his lunch at noon, such person never needs to consult a doctor.

    Nidra (Sleep)

    Sleep is a happy, soothing experience in itself. A person unable to sleep well can turn lunatic. It might seem like a trivial matter. But a person lacking sleep will realize its true importance. A healthy person needs at least 6 hours of sleep. Children and elderly people require eight hours of sleep. As the saying goes-early to bed, early to rise makes person healthy, wealthy and wise. The entire universe runs according to the rules made by God himself. All living beings except mankind retire to their resting place as the sunsets. All the bird with the exception of owls or bats wake up at the break of sawn, chirp away to praise the God and then get busy with their daily routine. The rooster wakes up to give the ‘wake up’ call to others as soon as the sun rises. Little sparrows sing praises of the God but him unfortunate human being keeps awake the whole night and sleep away in the morning hours, inviting ill healthy. We should derive inspiration from the animal world. Retiring to bed at nighttime and waking up in the morning at the right time makes a man healthy and capable.

    Brahmacharya (Celibacy)

    This means diverting our physical energy and mid away from material objects and focusing them on God and in serving others. Celibacy is not limited to control of the sexual organs. Celibacy or Brahacharya in the true sense is to convert the physical and mental energies in self realization to achieve proximity to ‘Bramha.

    We do not enjoy the pleasures but he pleasures enjoys us. Act of penance is not affected-we are. We cannot destroy time- time destroys us. We cannot finish greed-Greed finishes us. Pleasures can never satisfy us. Desires have no end. Maharishi Manu says :Sexual desires are insatiable. The act of satisfying sexual urges creates more urges, just like pouring oil into the fire. Maharishi Kapil expresses similar views in ‘Sankhyadarshan’.

    The entire environment is indicating us to observe the discipline. Let us jinn hands with nature to enjoy this orderly world around us.

    Vyayam (Exercise):

    The human body requires regular exercise as well as a proper diet to remain in good physical condition. Lack of exercise makes the physique unwell and lackluster. Regular exercise can turn even a weak,  ill or ordinary person into a strong, healthy and attractive person. Heart disease, diabetics, obesity, gastric problems, piles, blood pressure, mental stresses are the products of lack of physical exercise. If one practices yog regularly then all these diseases will stay away from him.

    Snan (Bath):

    One should wait till the body temperature returns to normal after exercise before bathing. Bathing refreshes the body. It cools off the body and it feels light and clean.        
    Water purifies the body. Truth purifies the mind. Learning and dexterity purifies the soul and knowledge purifies the intellect. If one is not ill then one should bath with cold water. Bathing with warm or hot water results in faulty digestive power and weak eyesight. Untimely graying of hair and hair-loss occurs. The body suffers from excess heat and essential ingredients of the body are washed away. One should rub the body with a rough textured cotton towel (khadi) the skin acquires a beautiful glow with this practice. If you suffer from constipation then rub your stomach with a dray towel. Bathing in a river or a pond is very beneficial for health.


    Once completing the routine for personal hygiene like daily ablutions, Bath etc, one must perform the asanas. After that he can meditate at least for 15 minutes to 1 hour to gain peace, contentment and happiness. Chanting of Pranav or Gayatri or any such powerful mantras with faith can bring peace, joy and strength.

    The study of yoga can have benefits for every area of our lives. As well as helping improve and maintain physical fitness and stamina, it can help us easy our minds of stress and anxiety it can aid relaxation help keep us healthy and generally make us more balanced and content in every day life.

    Presented at

    All India Sociological Conference
    Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi

    Mr. P.C. CHAVADA


    “Migration and Occupational Mobility among Visha Nima Bania Caste in Ahmedabad.”

    The information regarding families of Visha Nima Bania residing in Ahmedabad was obtained from different sources like (1) Population register of the caste(1976). (2) Cast Pragati Mandal List (1984), (3) Population register of Mahudha (Town or Taluka) (1986).

    The information was obtained through an interview schedule from 140 families i.e. totally 151 families. The aim of the study is to examine occupational mobility of Visha Nima Bania caste residing in Ahmedabad city.

    The people of this caste have migrated to Ahmedabad city form different rural areas. Hence the process of migration has been studied as one of the variables. Attempt has also been made to study the possibility of a relationship between migration and occupational mobility of the people of this caste.

    Regenstein has shown that in migration from rural area to urban area migratory move from smaller villages to towns and from towns to cities while smith states that most of the migratory migrate to a nearer distance and those who migrate to distance place migrate for business and industries in cities.

    S.B. Mehta 
    Bhavan’s Arts & Commerce College,
    Khanpur, Ahmedabad.

    On the bases of the findings of different studies on the age of migratory form rural area to urban area Doshi (1980) has made some observations. Zachariah in his study of Bombay city stated that most of the migratory belonged to 15 to 24 age group while Nayar in his study of Poona city stated that most of the migratory from South India migrated before the age of 30.

    Bose in his sample survey of 1959-60 shown that migratory belonged to the age group of 18 to 46. Barge in his study of urban to urban migration reveals that more migratory were of the 24 to 40 age group then of the 15 to 24 age group.

    This from different studies made by Zachariah, Nayar, Bose, and Bagel etc. reveal that young people have migrated more than children and aged people. The present study also reveals that most of the migratory were young. About 70% of the respondents to the interview schedule migrated between the ages of 16 to 30 years. However there are 24% of the respondents didn’t know the age of their father’s migration to Ahmedabad.

    Doshi (1980) has stated that the reason for migration from rural area to urban area with most of the migrates is to try their luck and people migrates from one city to another are known as ‘Floating’ or “Continuous migratory” and such migratory are seen in India (This is based on Deshmukh’s Delhi study) In the opinion of opportunity for new occupation and to starting new career unite a fresh encourage migratory. So it can be said that for migration from rural area to urban area ‘push-pull’ forces like urbanization and industrialization and economic difficulties are responsible.

    In rural area age long caste occupation relation slowly fade of and home industry also slowly broke-off and so the rural people were forced to migrate. On the other hand because of industrialigetion urbanization, education and such other factors New Industries and occupations developed in urban areas in their persons still education were considered As a result these days more and more people from rural area migrate to urban area permanently.

    In the present study while asking about the reason for migration to Ahmedabad city from their own area, 63% were found to have migrated for service or business, 15% respondents were doing business and still they migrated for business to Ahmedabad 18% respondents migrated for their own studies and 1% were migrated for their children’s’ education, 2% respondents migrated for their transfers and 1% respondents for other reasons. This clearly shows that people of this caste migrated to Ahmedabad were due to economic reason and urban forces.

    People of this caste have lived in Ahmedabad for the last 80 years and most of the respondent have migrated during last 55 years Most to he migrate are heads of the family. The age of the heads of the families who migrated to Ahmedabad varies from 24 to 80. 34% respondent’s father or uncle had migrated to Ahmedabad. On the basis of this study it can be said that migrating took place at least before two generations.

    Occupation is taken as one of the factors to measure social mobility and generally occupation of two generation is taken in to consideration. In the present study which type of occupational mobility prevails among the people of this caste is studied through the occupations of the 1st generation and 2nd generation. Grandfather and father were doing independent small business in their own area, while the respondents migrated to Ahmedabad and are serving as officers in corporate sectors or dong professional occupation. Thus upward occupational mobility can be seen in them. So it can be said there due to geographical migrating the persons of this caste have under taken higher occupation and have prospered economically. Thus in this study migrate and occupational mobility have direct relationship.


    In rural society caste and occupation relation gradually weakened and employment position became more crucial. Thus people cam to urban area for employment due to economical reasons men migrate to urban areas Some times they migrate for certain attraction. Among the migrated persons the number of persons doing independent business decreases and the occupation or service they take up shows upward mobility.



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